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Volume 33 (1&2), 2019

  • Authors: Sunday Babatunde Akinde, Deborah Adepeju Ojewande and Janet Olubukola Olaitan

    Abstract: The search for novel microorganisms with enhanced amylase production is a continuous process, and the starch-based agrowastes (SBAW) hold such potential. This study investigated the ability of bacteria isolated from SBAW obtained locally to produce extracellular amylase with varying cultural conditions. A total of 41 bacteria isolated by spread-plate from the SBAW samples were identified using their morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene characteristics. Preliminary screening by starch hydrolysis revealed three most-promising amylolytic isolates with 5.0 – 6.0 mm clear zone diameter. They were Myroides odoratimimus BY-F1, Enterobacter asburiae YP-F1 and Bacillus cereus CP-A4 with the amylase production of 308.75 ± 1.41 U/ml, 274.44 ± 0.68 U/ml and 205.83 ± 0.18 U/ml respectively. Their optimal culture conditions were BY-F1 [pH 7.0 at 40°C for 72 h], YP-F1 [pH 9.0 at 40°C for 24 h] and CP-A4 [pH 9.0 at 35°C for 72 h]. The FTIR characterisation of the amylase purified by Calotropis procera latex and activated charcoal revealed the presence of -OH, -COOH and -NH2 group, which are essential for amylase activity. The findings suggest the exploitation of Myroides odoratimimusBY-F1, Enterobacter asburiae YP-F1 and Bacillus cereusCP-A4 for industrial-scale production of extracellular amylase.

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  • Authors: *Banjo, O.A., Egberongbe, H.O. and Onajobi, I.B.

    Abstract: Poorly disinfected hospital floors are likely reservoir of infectious agents. The in use disinfecting solutions and complete disinfection outfit of five hospitals’ floors were quantitatively assessed in this study. Bacterial burden of regularly used mop heads and buckets used for wet mopping were determined on nutrient agar by pour plate method. Following disinfectant addition, in use disinfecting solution were examined quantitatively for bacterial bioburden (reception and wards) at 5 and 15min into cleaning. Isolation of bacteria was done using Centrimide, Eosine methylene blue, Xylose lysine deoxycholate and Mannitol salt agar. Identification was by Standard biochemical tests. The mean and standard deviations for bacterial burden in the wards and the reception mops ranged from 1.09 x 102 ± 62.7 to 2.51 x 104 ± 2.3 x 104 and 64.7 ± 20.1 to 7.9 x 103 ± 30.6 respectively. A reduction in bacterial count ranging from 85% to 96% in wards and 66% to 100% in reception sites of studied hospitals was observed 5minutes into disinfectant addition. Counts at 15min were generally higher in comparison to counts at 5min but remained constant at Hospital A. Decontamination of the cleaning materials caused a substantial decline in counts at all sites, significant at P=0.05. Staphylocccus aureus was isolated from four of the sites and other Gram negative bacteria (Serratia, Citrobacter, Escherichia, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Pseudomonas) were widely distributed, indicative of hygiene failure.

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  • Authors: Adeyemo, I.A.* and Olaribigbe, O.

    Abstract: This study estimated the mycoflora and mycotoxins (aflatoxin and fumonisin) contamination of Pupuru; a locally fermented cassava flour sold in four markets (Okitipupa, Ilutitun, Igodan and Ikoya) in Okitipupa, Ondo state, southwestern Nigeria. Sixty (60) samples gotten from the markets were found to be lightly contaminated with aflatoxin (P<0.05) and fumonisin (p<0.05) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively, although one of the samples from Okitipupa market had an undetectable level of fumonisin (>REF). The aflatoxin concentration in the samples ranged from 0.00096 to 0.0081 ppm while the fumonisin concentrations in the samples were between 0.08 and 0.68 ppb. Fungi species isolated from samples are Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium italicum, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. It is recommended that proper care should be taken during handling and storage of cassava used in the production of Pupuru to prevent the infestation microorganisms so as to ultimately reduce mycotoxin levels in the Pupuru.

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  • Authors: Anumudu, Christian K., Ikimi, Charles G., Zige, Douye Victor, Omeje, Faith I, and Gbodo, Edoama E.

    Abstract: A dramatic increase in bacterial resistance towards currently available antibiotics has raised worldwide concerns for public health. Therefore, bacteriocins which are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as a promisingly new group of therapeutic agents for managing infectious diseases and possibly in food preservation. The present study focusses on the isolation of novel bacteriocins from an indigenous sample of cow milk and testing of its antimicrobial activity. Two bacteria isolates (Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus plantarum) isolated from raw cow milk gotten from Yenegoa, Bayelsa state, Nigeria produced potent bacteriocins on De-Mann Rogosa and Sharpe agar and these were shown to have inhibitory activity against the pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli. The bacteriocins were heat stable, remaining active at temperatures up to 100°C and functioned well over a wide pH range of 0-10. There was a reduction in activity of the bacteriocins after treatment with proteinase K and peptidase, thus confirming the proteinaceous nature of the compounds. These bacteriocins displayed bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against E. coli, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration of 25μg/ml which is lower than that of the conventional antibiotics chloramphenicol (50μg/ml) used as positive control. The bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from cow milk in this work is effective in inhibiting the growth of E. coli and thus may be of use as a food preservative in the storage of food or as therapeutic agent for the treatment of infections caused by multi-drug resistant E. coli.

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  • Authors: *Egwuatu, T. O., Ukhureigbe, O. M., Ojo, S.K.S., Ogeneh, B.O., Osanyinlusi, S.A. and Ajayi, O.E.

    Abstract: Dermatophytes, the aetiological factor of Tinea capitis are pathogens causing infections of various courses. Limited studies of Tinea capitis have been carried out in Nigeria. This study therefore is aimed at determining the risk factors associated with this infection in Ado-odo Ota (Ogun State), Somolu, (Lagos State) and Oye-Ekiti, (Ekiti State). Scalp lesions of 102 primary school children were aseptically collected, after which questionnaires were used to collect their bio/socio-demographic data. The samples were analysed using microscopic, cultural, biochemical and molecular techniques, while the data was statistically analysed. In a total of one hundred and two (102) children aged between 1-14 years consisting of 73 (71.6 %) males and 29 (28.4%) females, 75 (73.5 %) were infected with dermatophytes. The dermatophytes consist of 29.3% Trichophyton, 65.3% Microsporum and 5.3 % Epidermophyton. Blasting of the sequenced Intraspacial (‘ITS’) genes confirmed the presence of the isolates. Males were most affected with socio-economic factors such as employment status of the parents, influencing infections (P<0.001). Other factors that facilitated transmission include: knowledge of mode of transmission, sharing of combs and towels, place of hair shaving-barbing, and age (5-10 most vulnerable, 4 and 11-14 less vulnerable). Number of children in the family and school location were discovered not to be risk factors. Health education is paramount in eradicating this infection, hence the introduction of hygiene policy into educational curricular, will ultimately help to reduce the menace of Tinea capitis.

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  • Authors: Udeze A.O*, Adeoti O.T, Ogunrinola O.T, and Sule W.F.

    Abstract: Because of shared route of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-I) and type 2 (HSV-2), HIV-1-infected persons are also susceptible to infection by HSV-1 and HSV-2. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgM antibodies among HIV-infected individuals accessing healthcare at General Hospital, Awo-Omamma Imo state, Nigeria. This is a hospital-based cross-sectional study. Blood samples were collected from 182 (38 males and 144 females: age range 3-72 years; mean age 36.5 years) HIV-infected participants on ART after collecting pertinent socio-demographic data using questionnaires. Serum from each sample was tested for the presence of IgM antibodies against HSV-1 and -2 using ELISA. Data were analysed using Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression analysis with SPSS 15.0 for Windows. Of the 182 samples tested, 166 (91.2%) and 156 (85.7%) were respectively positive for HSV-1 and HSV-2 while 148 (81.3%) were positive for both HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgM antibodies. These respectively represented dual HIV/HSV-1, HIV/HSV-2 and triple HIV/HSV-1/HSV-2 infection rates. Variables analysed as risk factors include patients’ gender, age group, marital status, educational status and CD4+ cell count. Age was predictive of HIV/HSV-1 dual infection while gender and age were both predictive of HIV/HSV-2 dual infection rates among the participants. This study reports high seroprevalence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgM antibodies among this cohort. Mass education targeted especially at the most vulnerable groups on the dangers and ways of preventing these infections is recommended.

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  • Authors: *Abubakar D. Tukur., Aishatu I. Aminu., Abdulhadi K. Sale., Jamiu O. Olabamiji.,Umar A. Aliyu., Aminu M. Bashir., Bashir R. Usaini., Murtala Rabiu., and Nafisatu Bello

    Abstract: The development of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis XDR-TB coupled with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-infection with TB has brought a major setback in the tuberculosis control strategies worldwide including Nigeria. The Genotype MTBDR plus VER 2.0 is widely recognized for its excellent performance due to its rapid detection of drug resistant tuberculosis especially from acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear-positive pulmonary TB cases which has brought much hope towards reversing the spread of all forms of tuberculosis. The study aimed at evaluating Genotype MTBDRplus VER 2.0 for detection of Drug Resistant-TB from sputum samples of smear-negative pulmonary TB cases. A total of 175 smear-positive and 278 AFB smear-negative sputum samples were purposely selected from sputum samples that were referred to North West Zonal Tuberculosis Reference laboratory. All the samples were rifampicin resistant cases (confirmed by Genxpert) from their respective health centers across North-Western Zone of Nigeria and were then subjected to Line Probe Assay (LPA) using Genotype MTBDRplusver 2.0. The result shows that 87% of the AFB smear-positive samples were identified as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) by the LPA and 13.7% were negative. Whereas 79%of the AFB smear-negative samples were also detected as negative for MTBC by the LPA and 21% were positive for MTBC. The study further revealed that 44.7% of the AFB smear-positive and 46.5% of AFB smear-negative samples were found to be rifampicin resistant by LPA. Also 36.4% of AFB smear-positive and 34.5% of the AFB smear-negative sample were found to be MDR-TB by the LPA. Most importantly, 15.1% of the smear-positive samples and 17.2% of AFB smear-negative samples were found to be susceptible to both rifampicin and isoniazid by the LPA. The study demonstrated that the Genotype MTBDR plusVer 2.0 detects 87% of the positive smears and 79% of the negative smears as positive and negative for MTBC respectively. Most importantly, it detects 21% of the AFB smear negative samples as positive for MTBC with some of them identified as rifampicin resistant and MDR-TB respectively. This therefore reveals the excellent performance of Genotype MTBDRplusVer 2.0 in the diagnosis of DR-TB both in smear positive samples and smear-negative samples within a short turnaround time.

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  • Authors: *Adeyemi F.M., Akinde S.B., Oyedara O.O.,Wahab A.A. and Jimoh S.O.

    Abstract: Groundwater, which serves as the major drinking water source to densely populated areas in Osogbo metropolis, are usually in close proximity to defective septic tanks. Faecal contamination of such water system is inevitable. This work investigated the faecal contaminants in eighty wells from five locations. Total coliform count (TCC) was determined using Most Probable Number (MPN) and membrane filtration; Escherichia coli was recovered using chromogenic media. Antibiotic susceptibility profile was obtained for E. coli isolates. All wells were > 15.24m from nearest septic tank; averaging 78m. Depth to water surface ranged between 9ft and 48ft with a mean of 23.8ft while 16.2% were deeper than 30ft to water surface. All samples (100%) had coliforms. TCC ranged between 1.0 x 102 and 4.0 x 105 cfu/ml (except Kasmo); with a mean 3.8 x 104 cfu/ml. Mean TCC for wells was highest in Igbona area and lowest for Oke-baale. Escherichia coli was isolated from 48.8% of samples. Five samples had two strains of E. coli as revealed on chromogenic media. The study recorded 100% resistance to ticarcillin and meropenem; 52.3% to tigecycline. Aztreonam and Colistin inhibited 92.6% and 91.0% of isolates respectively. Multidrug resistance was evident in 79.5% of isolates. The well water samples analyzed were neither safe for drinking nor put into such uses that may facilitate ingestion by humans. E. coli was most susceptible in-vitro to aztreonam and colistin, thus suggesting their use in the treatment of gastrointestinal syndromes resulting from consumption of contaminated groundwater.

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  • Authors: Akpomie, O.O., Akponah, E., Onoharigho, I., Isiakpere, O.P. and Adewuyi, I. S.

    Abstract: Achatina achatina harbours many microorganisms which may cause diseases or spoil the snail if not properly cooked. The study investigated the effect of some methods of cooking; frying, boiling, smoke-drying and oven-drying on the nutritional constituents and microorganisms isolated from snail to ascertain the best method which can reduce the or eliminate the unwanted organisms. Microorganisms were isolated from the snail samples using pour plate technique and identified by cultural, morphological and biochemical characterization. Proximate analysis of the snail samples was determined. The bacteria isolated were Bacillus sp, Escherichia coli, Proteus sp, Vibro sp, Salmonella sp, Staphylococcus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Shigella sp, Klebsiella sp, Streptococcus sp and Citrobacter sp while Mucor sp, Aspergillus sp and Rhizopus sp. were the fungal isolates. Salmonella sp, Vibrio sp and Escherichia coli were present in all the snail samples whereas Proteus sp was inhibited by all the cooking methods. Bacillus sp was sensitive to all the cooking treatments except boiling. Salmonella sp, Vibrio sp and E. coli had very high counts. However, the cooking treatments reduced the bacterial and fungal counts appreciably with smoke-drying having the least counts ranging from 1.20x101-2.80x101cfu/g respectively. The fat and moisture contents were reduced but reduction of protein and energy contents was minimal. There were varying degrees of reduction in both number and type of organisms inhibited by the different cooking methods. Smoked-drying exhibited the highest potential for the control of microorganisms and still maintained a healthy nutritional composition.

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  • Authors: Yahaya, S. and *Bappa, A.M.

    Abstract: An explosion in the world’s population has led to an increase in the demand for crude oil and its products resulting in an increased environmental pollution and thus leading to loss in biodiversity. Environmental reclamation by natural technique is believed to be eco-friendly and cost effective. This research investigated the biodegradation of crude oil supported on different soil particle sizes. Soil samples were randomly collected from different locations within Botanical garden of BUK and sieved into four (4) different particle sizes (0.6mm, 0.3mm, 0.15mm and 0.075mm) 200g of each of the sieved soil particle sizes were weighed and introduced into masonjar bottle. These were then uniformly contaminated with 60ml of crude oil. The set up were replicated in triplicate with each having two (2) controls. They were incubated aerobically at 37oC for 56 days. Enumeration of total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (TAHB) was done on Nutrient agar (NA) and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) on Bushnell’Haas medium (BHM) supplemented with crude oil. The bacterial isolates were identified based on Grams reaction and biochemical tests. The degradation efficiency was confirmed by GC-MS analysis, which indicated that the microbial isolates utilized most of the crude oil components. The result shows that the mean microbial counts for both TAHB decrease from 5.93 ± 0.1 to 5.38 ± 0.08 x105cfu/g during 56 days period of the study. The result also shows an increase in the mean counts of HUB from 0.00 ± 0.0x103 to 3.74 ± 0.03x103 cfu/g. Particle size A has the highest increase. The HUB identified were Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Proteus spp. The results indicate that larger particle size favors faster hydrocarbon biodegradation.

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  • Authors: Ayolabi Christianah Idowu*, bemgbo Sylvester Agha, Olusola Babatunde Adebiyi

    Abstract: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by culicine mosquitoes and causes Chikungunya fever, a febrile illness usually with concomitant rash and arthralgia. Having spread to over 40 countries worldwide and classified as a class B priority pathogen, CHIKV is an important threat to public health but has poor surveillance as with other viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) in Nigeria. The epidemiology of CHIKV in Nigeria is vague, thus, this study was designed to determine the current prevalence of CHIKV infection among febrile patients in Lagos. This was a cross-sectional study in which samples were collected from April to July 2018 at two General hospitals in Lagos. A total of 130 blood samples of febrile patients aged 1-60 years including 56 (43.1%) males and 74 (56.9%) females were collected and RNA was extracted from the serum samples. The extracted RNA was amplified using one-step RT-PCR with the specific CHIKV primers. The resulting amplicons (427bp) were run on 2% agarose gel and viewed on gel imager for the presence of CHIKV. A total of 9 out of 130 (6.9%) serum samples were positive for CHIKV RNA. The positive samples consist of 4 out of 56 (7.1%) males and 5 of 74 (6.8%) females (P>0.05). The age group 11-20 years had the highest prevalence of 14.3% whereas age groups 41-50 years and 51-60 years were both CHIKV RNA negative. This study shows a plausible circulation of CHIKV among febrile patients in Lagos with a prevalence of 6.9%. It also revealed that CHIKV, which is not generally suspected or diagnosed by physicians, may have contributed to the burden of febrile cases in Lagos.

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  • Authors: *Shamsuddeen, U. Gurama, A. G. and Dahiru, A. T.

    Abstract: This study was carried out in order to isolate and identify MDRs ETEC from vegetable samples, and test for the synergistic effect of umbrella leaves extract with some selected antibiotics on the resistant strains. Fifty (50) vegetables samples were collected which includes Cabbage, Lettuce, Spinach, Cucumber and Carrots, (10 samples each). Samples were chopped into smaller pieces using a sterile stainless steel knife prior to weighing and were then vigorously shaken in sterile peptone water in order to dislodged the bacteria cells from the vegetables samples; the suspension was spread-plated on both Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) and MacConkey agars. The plates were incubated. Colonies exhibited metallic sheen on EMB agar and pink color on MacConkey agar were sub cultured to obtain pure culture, which were then subjected to Gram staining technique and biochemical tests prior to antibiotic sensitivity testing using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. The isolates were then inoculated in skimmed milk media and was sent for Molecular detection of ETEC toxins. The results obtained showed that out of the 50 samples collected from different markets within Kano metropolis, Escherichia coli was isolated from 23 isolates representing 46% of the samples. Out of the 23 isolates of E. coli, (11) samples were found to be MDRs out of which seven (7) ETEC toxigenic genes were detected. With which two isolates responded to the synergistic activity of resisted antibiotics with the plant extract. The plant extract was screened for the presence of active secondary metabolites where: Alkaloid, Flavanoid, Steroid, Tannin were present and Saponins was absent.

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  • Authors: *Isa, H., Ja’afaru, M. I., Bashir, M. and Suleiman, Y. A.

    Abstract: Measles account for nearly half of the 1.7 million annual deaths due to childhood vaccinepreventable diseases. Presence of measles specific IgG antibodies has been proven to correlate with protection (immunity) to natural measles infection. This study was therefore designed to determine the seroprevalence of measles specific IgG in relation to vaccination status, types of settlement and parents’ occupation among children aged 0-14 years in Adamawa State. The research was carried out within the three senatorial districts of the State. Three hundred and sixty eight (368) serum samples collected from children were used to determine the prevalence using ELISA technique. Questionnaire was used to obtain demographic data of the children. The study revealed that 227 (61.6%) of the children had protective measles IgG antibody, while 141 (38.4%) had unprotective or no measles IgG antibody. Statistical analysis revealed that there was significant association between prevalence of measles specific IgG antibody and vaccination status against measles, types of settlement and parents’ occupation (p-value < 0.05).

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  • Authors: Ogechukwu P. Onwuazor and Jerry Obeta Ugwuanyi*

    Abstract: All over the world, vegetables are routinely eaten raw or partially exposed to heat as part of food garnishing. Used in these ways, these vegetables can become sources of infection with various food borne pathogenic organisms. This study assessed the contamination of vegetables and related environmental materials with L. monocytogenes and the thermal adaptive responses, heat resistance (D-values) and antibiotic resistance profile of the isolates. The bacterium was present in 92% of 250 vegetable and 65.52% of 290 environmental samples. Highest incidence occurred in leafy vegetables (100%) which also bore the heaviest load (>5log cfu g1). Among the environmental samples, highest incidence was found in soil (100%) with contamination load greater than 6log cfu g-1. These indicate that raw vegetables are of public health interest for transmission of L. monocytogenes and genesis of listeriosis. The mean thermal death times (D-value) of representative isolates were 1.82 min, 1.27 min and 56.4 sec at 60o, 65o and 70oC respectively in fish soup. Heat shocking L. monocytogenes cells at 45oC / 30 min resulted in significant increase in D-value at 60oC but not 65o and 70oC. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates showed resistance to two or more antibiotics suggesting prior exposure of the organisms to antimicrobial agents. The public health implications of the findings are discussed.

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  • Authors: Jolayemi Bashir* A.D., Abdulsalami M.S. and Egbe N.E.

    Abstract: Hepatitis refers to an inflammatory condition of the liver. It is commonly caused by a viral infection, but there are other possible causes of hepatitis. This study sought to determine the prevalence of Occult hepatitis B virus infection in previously screened blood from blood banks in Kaduna metropolis. The method involved collection of 2.0 ml of blood from donor’s pilot sample and re-testing the blood by another rapid test kit, Lab ACON (Hangzhou Biotest Biotech Co. Ltd. China). Those found negative were then tested for HBV-DNA by PCR. The PCR product was Sequenced using Sanger’s method to determine its variant. Structured questionnaire was also administered to blood bank facilities for the study. The result showed that all blood banks used employed rapid test kit method only for donors screening. There was a prevalence of 0.5% Occult hepatitis B virus infection in previously screened blood from blood banks in Kaduna metropolis. Statistical measure using Chi – square to compare the difference between use of Rapid test strip method and the PCR method shows that there is no significant difference at P < 0.01, but the PCR method is more sensitive than the rapid test strip method. Blast of the sequence shows 92% identity to Hepatitis B V2. Occult HBV infection exists in previously screened blood from blood banks in Kaduna metropolis and the use of rapid test kit alone for screening prospective donors will not eliminate the risk of HBV transmission in blood transfusion. Blood donor samples in Kaduna state should be tested for OBI by Nucleic acid testing (NAT) prior to transfusion to minimize the HBV infection risk.

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  • Authors: Makinde O.A.

    Abstract: Watermelon is a commonly consumed fruit. However, only the fleshy pulp is usually consumed leaving the seed and rind to be discarded. The effects of processing (heat treatment and fermentation) on the proximate composition and anti-nutrient components of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) seeds were investigated. Fermentation was carried out by first boiling seeds for 3h, wrapped in clean plantain (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca Linn.) leaves and allowed to ferment for 96h. Proximate and phytochemical screenings were carried out on the raw and processed seeds. Microbial analyses were also carried out daily on the fermenting seeds. Results of proximate analysis revealed a significant difference (p<0.05) in contents of protein, crude fat, ash, moisture content and carbohydrate of the raw, cooked and fermented seeds while there was no significant difference in the crude fibre content of the raw and cooked seeds. Protein, crude fat and carbohydrate ranged from 8.55-13.14%, 4.64-9.76% and 49.78-60.29% respectively with the highest values (except for carbohydrate) in fermented seeds while the raw seeds had the least. The anti-nutrient investigation showed that oxalate was present in raw seeds but absent in the cooked and fermented seeds. Anti-nutrients present in the raw seeds showed variable reductions after processing. Nine bacterial genera identified as Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus, Proteus, Pediococcus, Klebsiella and Serratia with one fungal genera identified as Aspergillus were recovered from the fermenting seeds. The pH, titratable acidity and temperature of the seeds at the end of fermentation were 8.02, 0.20 and 28oC respectively. The study showed that cooking and fermentation of watermelon seeds have direct relationships on its proximate and anti-nutrient compositions. The cooked and fermented watermelon seeds could be used in food and feeds formulation.

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  • Authors: *Usman N., Tijjani M.B. and Atta H.I.

    Abstract: Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene(BTEX)are the most commonly cited monoaromatic compounds in environmental pollution in recent years due to their high solubility and toxicity in ground water and soils. This studywas conducted in order to isolate and enumerate fungi in soils heavily polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons, and to select those with BTEX degrading abilities. Screening of the fungi isolated on Mineral Salt Media (MSM) supplemented with BTEX showed Aspergillus terreus DMW-5 and Gliocladium spp. had the highest colony diameter while Penicillium spp. has the lowest colony diameter. The highest BTEX weight loss and increase in spore size was also observed with Aspergillus terreus DMW-5 and Gliocladium spp. which degraded 240mg/mL BTEXand 220mg/mL BTEX while the lowest was with Aspergillus flavus which degraded 190mg/mL BTEX. The hydrocarbon utilizing fungal (HUF) counts revealed Aspergillus terreus DMW-5 and Gliocladium spp. as having the highest number of spores (8.2 x 107 and6.3 x 107 spores/mL) and Aspergillus flavus with the lowest number of spores (1.2 x 107 spores/mL). Thus, Gliocladium spp.and Aspergillus terreus DMW 5 are potential candidates for the mycoremediation studies of BTEX.

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  • Authors: *Obi C. N and Ugwu C. J.

    Abstract: Yellow and white varieties of cassava (Manihot esculenta) tubers were fermented for the reduction of cyanide content and nutritional improvement. The samples were steeped separately in rain water and allowed to ferment spontaneously for 4 days. The fermenting steep water was inoculated by Spread Plate method on Nutrient, De Man Rogosa Sharpe and McConkey Agar for bacterial isolation and on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for isolation of fungi in triplicates and incubated. The isolates include: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp, Lactobacillus spp, Enterobacter spp, Aspergillus spp, Candida spp, and Saccharomyces spp. Fermentation caused a reduction in the cyanide content from 9.24±0.01 to 2.93±0.02 mg/100g and 9.85±0.03 to 3.15±0.04 mg/100g in the yellow and white cassava varieties respectively. The pH decreased in value while the titratable acidity increased in value for both cassava varieties. Proximate analyses showed significant increase in protein, crude fibre and moisture values in both cassava varieties but a decrease in ash and carbohydrate contents. Fermentation significantly reduced the cyanide contents (p ≤ 0.05) and improved nutritional status of the fermented cassava tubers. The fermented food was found pathogen-free thus safe for consumption.

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  • Authors: Adejare R. Oloyede, Adediwura O. Arowosegbe and Ayomikun E. Aderounmu

    Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a growing public health challenge. Although MRSA has been detected in pigs and other livestock in Nigeria, there are few reports on the prevalence and public health implications of MRSA in chickens. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in selected poultry farms in Odeda local government area of Ogun state. Nasal and cloacal swab samples were collected from one hundred and fifty egg-laying birds from ten poultry farms within the local government area. Swab samples were also collected from nasal and hands of twenty-five poultry workers. All samples were screened for the presence of MRSA. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the MRSA isolates was determined using disc diffusion method. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 86 (57.3%) of the birds, and 19 (76%) of the farm workers. The prevalence of MRSA in layers and workers were 16.0% and 20.0% respectively. The prevalence of MRSA in the layers in different farms ranged from 0% to 33.3%. The MRSA isolates showed high level of resistance to oxacillin (100%), cefuroxime (79%), streptomycin (72%), erythromycin (72%), amoxicillin (72%), gentamycin (65%) and tetracycline (62%). The study further revealed the irrational usage of antimicrobials and poor hygienic practices in most of the poultry farms. The presence of multi-drug resistant MRSA in poultry farms therefore poses a risk not only to the birds, but also the farm workers, consumers and community.

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  • Authors: *Okoror L. E, Osanyinlusi S. A., Ukhureigbe O.M and Udenze D. O.

    Abstract: Dengue is an endemic mosquito borne viral disease which is sparingly considered during routine screening for agents of febrile illnesses in Nigeria even though it has been reported across major cities in the country. We investigated the prevalence of dengue virus infection among dwellers of a rural community in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria. Whole blood samples were collected from consenting participants in Hospitals and clinics within the community and tested for DENV IgM antibody using an ELISA (Wkea Medical Supplies, Guanzou China) technique. Out of a total number of 120 serum samples screened, 57.50% tested positive for dengue IgM while 42.50% were negative. Female samples recorded highest positivity of 37.5% compared to males having 20%. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of dengue IgM antibody by gender (X2= 8.89, df= 1, & p = 0.003). There exist a statistical association between dengue IgM antibody and length of stay in the community (p<0.001); occupation (p=0.0175); travel history (p=0.003) as well as use of mosquito nets and insecticides (p<0.001). Our findings show a relatively high prevalence of recent dengue viral infection within the rural community which needs to be studied further. Hence, there is the need to constantly screen for dengue during all cases of febrile conditions.

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  • Authors: Olukunle, Oluwatoyin Folake and Falayi, Micheal Abiodun

    Abstract: Eggshells are waste from homes and industries. Its disposal contributes to environmental pollution. Some of the challenges with eggshell wastes management are disposal cost, availability of dumpsite, flies and odour. However, this waste can be converted to useful materials. In this study, different gram of eggshell was substituted for proteins in nutrient broth to grow cellulase-producing bacteria. Crude and pretreated eggshell were added to 100ml of bacteriological media. Filter paper assay was used to determine cellulase activity produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus. From the results, highest cellulase activity of 28.80IU was observed from cellulase produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa supplemented with 0.5g of the crude eggshell, assayed at 50oC for 60 minutes while the least activity of 2.50 IU was observed in cellulase produced by Bacillus cereus in 2.0g pretreated (15% HCl) eggshell supplemented medium at 40oC for 60 minutes. In the control (Nutrient broth), cellulase produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed the highest activity of 42.20 IU at 50oC for 60 minutes while the least activity of 7.50IU was observed in cellulase produced by Bacillus cereus at 50oC for 60 minutes. Cellulase activity was low for 120 minutes at 50oC. This research findings show that eggshells contain protein which can be metabolized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus. The enzyme cellulase acts best at an optimum temperature of 50oC for 60 minutes, it also shows that media supplemented with crude eggshell gave better yield than those of HCl pretreatment. Higher activities were observed in cellulase produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa than those produced by Bacillus cereus.

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  • Authors: Oshoma C.E.*, Igwenwanne A.E. and Omorotionwan B.B.

    Abstract: Ready-to-eat foods are easily recontaminated by microbes during post processing and may be the cause of food borne diseases. Food samples analyzed were Doughnut, Fried snail, Boiled yam/stew, Smoked fish, Moi-moi, Jollof rice, Eba and Gala obtained from vendors in Egor, Ikpoba Okha, Ovia North-East and Oredo Local Government Area (LGA) all in Benin City. The collected ready-to-eat foods were taken to the laboratory and analyzed immediately as 0 h and the other part was stored in a cool box for 8 hr. Pour-plated method was used for heterotrophic bacterial and Staphylococcal count on nutrient agar and mannitol salt agar respectively. Polymerase chain reaction assay was employed for the detection of femA and Staphylococcal enterotoxin (A, B, C, D and E) genes. The heterotrophic bacterial and Staphylococcal counts of the food samples increased after 8hr of storage. The highest bacterial count of 10.30±0.05 x106cfu/ml was from doughnut obtained from Ikpoba Okha LGA and the least was 1.90±0.10x106cfu/ml from fried snail obtained from Egor LGA. The highest Staphylococcal count was 4.00±0.20x106cfu/ml from doughnut obtained from Ikpoba Okha LGA and the least was 0.75±0.05x106cfu/ml from fried snail obtained from Ovia N/E LGA. The identified bacterial isolates were Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Corynebacterium kustcheri, C. xerosis, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus varians, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. intermidius. Micrococcus varians had the highest frequency of occurrence (11.75%). All the S. aureus isolated from the food samples obtained from the four LGAs harboured 100% femA and 75% SEE genes. The study showed that ready-to-eat foods are prone to serious contamination by potentially hazardous organisms whose population and toxigenicity increases with time.

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  • Authors: *Gurama, A. G., Shamsuddeen,. U. Dahiru, A. T.

    Abstract: This study is aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic leaves extract of Terminalia catappa on some clinical bacterial isolates. The extracts were tested in vitro on Gram negative bacteria, it was obtained from ethanol using percolation method. The sensitivity of four clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganiis, Yersina enterocolitic was tested. The extract demonstrated strong in vitro antibacterial activity against these organisms at all concentration used (20μg/disc, 40μg/disc, 80μg/disc and 160μg/disc). Of these bacteria screened for antibacterial activity Morganella morganiis appeared to be the most sensitive organism exhibiting growth inhibition zone diameter of 15mm (160μg/disc), 14mm (80μg/disc), 12mm (40μg/disc), and 9mm (20μg/disc). While the least sensitive organism was observed on Escherichia coli 14mm (160μg/disc), 11mm (80μg/disc), 10mm (40μg/disc), 9mm (20μg/disc). Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract was determined at 25ug/ml for the entire test organism. Although the extract revealed a strong inhibitory activity against the test organisms, growth was observed when test-tubes which showed absence of growth at MIC were sub-cultured on solid media to determine Minimum Bacterial Concentration (MBC) meaning that the extract was only Bacteriostatic at these concentrations.

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  • Authors: *Olusegun-Joseph, Taiye Shade., Akande, David .O. and Izuka, Lilian

    Abstract: Food borne parasitic diseases are prevalent in major poor regions of the world and abound where waste from definitive hosts contaminate food, resulting in infections commonly occurring in children and immunocompromised individuals. This study assessed the degree of parasitic contamination of vegetables grown in Lagos, Nigeria. Fifteen (15) different species of vegetables were collected from various farms in Lagos for a period of 2 months from August to October. One hundred and thirty eight (138) samples of the vegetables were washed in three wash solutions; physiological saline, glycine buffer and distilled water. The resulting wash solutions were strained and centrifuged to concentrate the parasitic stages and examined with the aid of a light microscope. A prevalence of 58.7% (81 samples) parasitic contamination was found, with various parasites including Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba coli, Fasciola spp,Giardia lamblia and Strongyloides stercoralis. Hookworm and G. lamblia were found in all farm locations surveyed. Lactuca sativa had the highest contamination (17.7 %).Sedimentation technique was more sensitive for detection with a higher parasitic recovery rate (77.4%) than flotation technique (22.6%).The difference however was not statistically significant(p > 0.05). Physiological saline was found to have the capability of dislodging more parasitic stages(58.1%) than other wash solutions. These findings suggest evidence for high risk of acquiring parasitic infection from the consumption of raw vegetables when not properly and hygienically prepared. Proper handling, washing and cooking of vegetable products is strongly advocated to reduce risk of parasitic infections.

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  • Authors: Unegbu Nnachetam Valentine, Nwachukwu Obiora Ndubuisi, Obum-Nnadi Charity Ndidi, Nkwoemeka Ndidi Ethel, Emmanuel Nnabuike Ugbo, Egwuatu Pius Ikenna

    Abstract: Diabetic wounds unlike typical wounds are slower to heal, making treatment with conventional topical medications an uphill process. Among several different alternative therapies, honey is an effective choice because it provides comparatively rapid wound healing. The apiary honey samples used in this study were purchased from Umudike research Institute Umuahia, in Abia State, Southeastern Nigeria. Phytochemical screening, antibacterial susceptibility test, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were performed using standard methods. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids and flavonoids and absence of Terpenoids, Phlobatanins, phenols and tannins. Antibacterial activity of apiary honey on some medically important bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows that apiary honey exhibit strong antibacterial activity producing zones of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Also, honey sample used in this study showed antibacterial activity than the commercially available antibiotics, both of which were of the same concentration of 2.5ml. The results from this study shows that apiary honey, apart from its roles as food and supplements, could be used as an antibacterial agent, as they may be an excellent alternative to curtail the further spreading of drug resistant bacteria in Nigeria.

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  • Authors: Wahab Abideen Akinkunmi*, Awang Ahmad Sallehin Awang Husaini, Adeyemi Folasade Muibat

    Abstract: Bioremediation is an alternative green technology for the removal of heavy metals pollution because of their toxicity to the environment and public health. Mangrove is an extreme environment which acts as natural filters of water flowing into the sea, and retain heavy metals and sediments in the roots and soil substrate. The present study aimed to isolate efficient copper tolerant fungi from mangrove soil environment and measure its potentiality for copper removal from aqueous solution. The most tolerant fungal strain was successfully isolated and identified molecularly as Fusarium equiseti KR706303. The isolated fungus was used for biosorption studies using Potato Dextrose broth (PDB) amended with copper ions. The effects of physical parameters on copper (II) ions biosorption were monitored. The results showed that the optimal parameters for the removal of copper ions such as heavy metal concentration and pH were 30 mg L-1, with a maximum Cu(II) adsorption of 8.5mg/g observed at pH 9 and temperature of 30°C during the batch biosorption experiments. The optimal parameters for biomass weight, agitation speed, contact time and biomass age were observed at 0.04 g/L, 150 rpm, 60 min and fifth day; respectively. The observation in this study reveals that the biomass of the isolated F. equiseti KR706303 has the potential to be used as a biosorbent for heavy metal particularly Cu(II) removal from the contaminated sites. The technology is simple, efficient, cost effective and environmental friendly.

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  • Authors: Yaki, L. M., Ibrahim, A., Wartu, J. R. and Zakka, A. W.

    Abstract: Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacillus known to colonize the stomach and plays a role in the creation of multiple gastrointestinal disorders which causes considerable morbidity and impose a major burden upon healthcare particularly in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Yusuf Dantsoho Memorial Hospital, Kaduna State Nigeria. Hundred (100) blood samples were collected from pregnant women and screened for the presence of Helicobacter pylori antibodies using NOVA TEST One Step Diagnostic Rapid Test Cassette. Questionnaires were also used to determine the risk factors associated with H. pylori infection. The results obtained showed an overall prevalence of 29%. The results of prevalence by age group showed that age group greater than 38 years had the highest prevalence of 51.7%, while age group 18 – 22 had the lowest prevalence of 6.9%. Statistical analysis of the risk factors associated with H. pylori infection using chi-square showed no significant association (p-value greater than 0.05) between H. pylori infection with pregnancy stages in trimesters, gastrointestinal illness, heartburn, and source of water for drinking. However, this study showed significant association (p-value of 0.03) between Helicobacter pylori infection and hyperemesis gravidarum among the study population. Therefore, there is need to create awareness of Helicobacter pylori infection for its possible prevention and routine screening for Helicobacter pylori be implemented for all antenatal women in the hospital.

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  • Authors: Usman U. Zango, Tijjani M. B. and Anil K. Sharma.

    Abstract: Industrial effluent causes serious problem to the environment, it contain toxic chemicals such as heavy metals, dyes and other substances which affect water bodies, soil and other parts of the ecosystem. Heavy metals such as Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr) and Copper (Cu) are very hazardous to human life, when released through human anthropogenic activities. Methods of removal by physicochemical techniques were found inadequate. Bioremediation procedures can be employed to remove waste products from the environment which is eco-friendly and less cost-effective. Pb-resistant fungus was isolated from the polluted soil. It was grown on Sabouraud Dextrose Broth (SDB) by enrichment method and plated on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) and then screened at various concentrations of Pb ions concentrations up to 700mg/L. The 18S rRNA was carried out and based on that Clustal X software was used to identify the isolate as Aspergillus terreus. The uptake of the Pb ions was also carried out and enhanced in the liquid medium by optimization of the conditions which includes pH, temperature, inoculums size and incubation time. The highest Pb removal was found to be 84.63%, with dried biomass of 1.78 mg. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed the structure of the isolates before and after the treatment with Lead heavy metal. The isolate could be used for the removal of contaminants especially hazardous chemicals and heavy metals from the environment.

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  • Authors: Suleiman, A. B., Makolo D. Ahmad A.E., Tahir M. I. and Dikwa K. B.

    Abstract: It has been established that bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is still a serious threat to dairy industry globally. Consumption of raw milk from the mastitic milk has been identified as a major source of public health issues in the developing nations. This study therefore was aimed at phenotypic characterization of S. aureus isolates from cases of bovine mastitis using both traditional, conventional and serological techniques. A total of 339 milk samples were collected from 98 cows at quarter level and analyzed for subclinical mastitis by California Mastitis Test (CMT). The CMT positive samples were bacteriologically analyzed following standard procedures for the isolation of S. aureus. Further identification and strain typing was done using Staphytect Slide Agglutination Test System and Microbact Staphylococcal 12S Identification System kits. Of the 339 samples analyzed, 30.9% were identified as subclinical mastitis. Moreover, 103(98.1%) of them harbored Staphylococcus species. Also out of the 40 randomly selected isolates that were strain typed, 39 (97.5%) were confirmed as S. aureus and 1 (2.5%) was S. hyicus and all the 40 isolates were coagulase positive. This study concludes that there is high prevalence of S. aureus in the mastitic milk samples studied and this poses a potential health threat not only to public health and safety of the consumers but also to the general public. It also identifies that that a reliable, rapid identification and strain typing of Staphylococcus species by both traditional, conventional and serological techniques provides a cornerstone for the control of S. aureus mastitis

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  • Authors: Vincent N. Chigor*, Chizoba A. Ozochi and Veronica J. Umoh

    Abstract: Microbial fresh water contamination occurs when faecal matters enter the water body. It is a global issue however; it is more severe in the developing countries due to; rapidly growing population and urbanization, land use and development, unhygienic and poor sanitation practices. Faecal matter pollution of fresh water is perhaps the most hazardous form of fresh water pollution since; it constitutes the greatest risk to the ecosystem and to public human health. Ecologically, it disrupts the nutrient load of the water body leading to eutrophication and the consequent production of toxins directly or indirectly affects man and animals especially, live of aquatic organisms. The public health risk is mainly due to the introduction of microbial pathogens whose diseases are associated with serious morbidity and mortality; and some, are capable of spreading rapidly leading to epidemics of varying proportions. In addition to causing diseases, it disseminates virulence and antibiotic resistance genes, which can be transferred to non-pathogenic and non-antibiotic resistant strains or species in the water body, resulting to diseases with less therapeutic options. The human health risked can be assessed by both the observed-adverse-effect-level approach (OAELA) and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). This paper thus, reviews risks associated with the use of microbiologically polluted freshwater and concludes that source water protection and point of use treatment measures is the ultimate means of mitigating such risks and should no longer be neglected.

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  • *Kumurya A. S., Yusuf A.A. and Umar S.G.

    Abstract: Anaerobes are normally found within certain areas of the body but result in serious infection when they have access to a normally sterile body fluid or deep tissue. This paper reviewed and presents the current information on the relationship of anaerobic bacteria with surgical wound infections. Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) changed the term surgical wound infections to surgical site infections, classified the anaerobic bacteria on the basis of oxygen requirements, and classified the surgical wounds based on degree of endogenous microbial contamination. The paper also reviewed other risk factors associated with surgical wound infections such as patient factors, surgical factors, preoperative patient care, theatre factors and equipment factors. Laboratory diagnosis of anaerobic bacterial infection, specimen collection techniques for cultivation of the anaerobic bacteria and various anaerobic growth media used in bacteriology have also been reviewed. The use of some antibiotic prophylaxis before surgery, and some ways of preventing the surgical wound infections were covered

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  • Authors: Ige O.T., Mohammed-Durosinlorun A., Ige S.O. and Jimoh O.

    Abstract: The importance of screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy can never be overemphasized. This study was done to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infection, the bacteriological profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates, amongst pregnant women attending their first antenatal clinic. Two hundred and twenty-seven pregnant women presenting for the first antenatal clinic visit at the Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital, Kaduna were recruited for the study using systematic random sampling method, relevant demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained from proformas given to the pregnant women to fill. Clean catch mid-steam urine samples were collected and processed using standard bacteriological methods. The modified Kirby-Bauer method (Disk diffussion) was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2012) guidelines. Prevalence of AB was19.8% and isolates recovered included Staphylococcus aureus (51.1%), Escherichia coli (28.9%), Proteus mirabilis (11.1%) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (8.9%). Bacterial isolates from this study were most sensitive to Gentamycin, followed by Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid, and least susceptible to Cotrimoxazole. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women presenting for the first antenatal clinic visit at the Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital, Kaduna is high. Follow up studies are required to determine if routine screening by urine culture should advocated for all pregnant women at booking.

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  • Authors: Alkali B.,* Agwu E., Sarkinfada F., Idris A. M. and Takalmawa H. U

    Abstract: Health care acquired infections (HCAIs) are those infections that occur within 48 hours of hospital admission, 3 days of discharge or 30 days of an operation. These infections have strong effect on patients because of worsening underlying medical condition and increased mortality and morbidity. They are mostly caused by microorganisms already present in or on the patient's own body. Such organisms only cause problems when thebody's defenses are weakened, or breached by surgery or other medical procedures. Such infections may also be caused by micro-organisms originating from another patient either by direct contact or through a contaminated hospital environment. This study aimed to detect the bacterial agent associated with HCAIs in some selected hospitals in Kano metropolis. A total of 401 non duplicated samples were collected from patients who spent ≥14 days and aged ≥ 18 years that were admitted in the three selected hospitals of Kano metropolis. All the samples were cultured on the appropriate culture media and subjected to standard biochemical tests according to standard bacteriological procedure. Antibiotics susceptibility testing was done using a modified form of the Kirby Bauer method. An overall prevalence of 34.4% were obtained, with higher incidence 28 (7.0%) in age group 39 – 48 years. Gram negative organisms were the most frequent organisms among which E. coli and Proteus spp have the higher percentage of 26.1% and 16.7% respectively. Most of the isolated organisms were shown to be resistant to Cotrimozaxole and Amoxicillin. From what was obtained in this study, it shows that Gram negative bacilli were frequent organisms associated with nosocomial infection in the study area. Patients with post surgical site infection has the highest percentage of nosocomial infection among which E. coli and Proteus spp are the predominant species.

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  • Authors: *Bukar A. and Salami-Suleiman F.A.

    Abstract: This study was aimed at determining the nutritional and sensory evaluation of soy yoghurt produced by fermentation of soymilk with Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from fermented skimmed cow milk. Lactobacillus platarum which was randomly isolated, and identified with biochemical and molecular processes underwent fermentation for 9 hours, together with commercial yoghurt starter culture containing Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbreuckii subsp. bulgaricus, which served as control to produce two types of fermented soy yoghurts labeled A and B respectively. Samples of the soy yoghurts were collected at 3 hours interval, analysed for proximate and physicochemical parameters, and at the end of 9 hours fermentation period, sensory evaluation was carried out. Also there was an overall drop in pH from 7.13 to 4.3 in soy yoghurt A and from 7.1 to 4.2 in B, while the titratable acidity (Lactic acid equivalent) showed an overall increase from 0.51 to 0.92% in A and 0.74- 0.90% in B. However, total solids and viscosity increased in sample A from 9.02- 13.25%, 0.3-0.5PaS and in B from 3.66-5.86%, 9.56- 13.62%, 0.24 to 0.40 PaS between 0 – 9 hours respectively. The ash, moisture and crude fat content had an overall decrease in sample A from 0.85 - 0.61% , 92.4- 92.28% and 1.92 - 0.79%, respectively and Sample B from 0.85- 0.63%, 92.87- 92.06% and 1.87- 0.85%, respectively. The protein content increased from 3.72-5.54% in sample A, and 3.66-5.86% in sample B respectively. The carbohydrate content of the soy yoghurt samples decreased after 3-9 hours, from 1.20-0.78% in sample A and 0.80- 0.60% in sample B respectively. The microbiological analysis indicated that there was an increase in cell growth of sample A containing Lactobacillus plantarum, from 3.2 log cfu/ml to 4.6 logcfu/ml and from 3.7logcfu/ml to 5.0logcfu/ml in sample B. Sample B was most preferred in terms of aroma, taste, texture, colour and overall acceptability (70% acceptability), while sample A had a 64% acceptability. The result revealed that the use of isolates from fermented skimmed cow milk in the fermentation of soy milk produced soy yoghurt of acceptability and sensory attributes similar to that produced using commercially sold starter culture.

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